THROWBACK THURSDAY - Remembering inspiring women from history
Following on from the fantastically successful event at Girton, ‘The Vindication of the Rights of Black Women’ organised by Priscilla Menah, today’s is Audre Lorde, an incredibly important civil rights activist and poet. As part of Black History Month, her work will be celebrated at this coming Monday’s Cambridge Feminist Society reading.
The wonderful Justina Kehinde Ogunseitan will be performing - we can’t wait.
Black History Watch… U.S. Senator Candidate Cory Booker’s quest to Join the First and Only 8 African American United States Senators!
The United States Senate has a long history of producing historic leaders, but has featured only eight African-American members. The following eight U.S. Senators (photo Senators & Representatives) set a number of political and social milestones spanning the Reconstruction and beyond. Continue reading to learn more about their many achievements.
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Celebrate and Commemorate Black History Weekly on The Gist of Freedom
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The First Colored Senator and Representatives, in the 41st and 42nd Congress of the US. Top standing left to right: Robert C. De Large, M.C. of S. Carolina; and Jefferson H. Long, M.C. of Georgia. Seated, left to right: U.S. Senator H.R. Revels of Mississippi; Benj. S. Turner, M.C. of Alabama; Josiah T. Walls, M.C. of Florida; Joseph H. Rainy, M.C. of S. Carolina; and R. Brown Elliot, M.C. of S. Carolina. Lithograph by Currier and Ives, 1872.
List of Eight United States Senators
Hiram Revels Hiram Revels of Mississippi became the first African American senator in 1870. Born in North Carolina in 1827, Revels attended Knox College in Illinois and later served as minister in the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Baltimore, Maryland. He raised two black regiments during the Civil War and fought at the battle of Vicksburg in Mississippi. The Mississippi state legislature sent him to the U.S. Senate during Reconstruction where he became an outspoken opponent of racial segregation. Although Revels served in the Senate for just a year, he broke new ground for African Americans in Congress.
Revels was the first African-American to serve as a state senator, representing Mississippi. Revels was elected by the Mississippi State Senate to fill a vacant U.S. Senate seat, which was abandoned by Albert G. Brown when Mississippi seceded from the Union during the Civil War.
Revels was greeted in Washington by two days of debate about his seating in the Senate. Southern Democrats staunchly opposed Revels’ admission into the Senate because of the Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision, which stated that African-Americans were property rather than citizens. Since the 14th Amendment was ratified in 1868, two years before Revels was elected to the Senate, Democrats argued that Revels could not fulfill the nine-year citizenship requirement and, therefore, could not legally assume the position of senator. Their argument was ruled invalid after a decision that the Civil War and Reconstruction amendments overturned Dred Scott.
William “Mo” Cowan
The appointment of Massachusetts Senator William “Mo” Cowan on February 1, 2013 marked the first time that two African Americans have served simultaneously in the United States Senate.
Appointed to the Senate on January 2, 2013, Tim Scott became the first African American since Reconstruction to represent a Southern state in the Senate.
Barack Obama Elected to the United States Senate in November of 2004, he took the oath of office and became the fifth African American to serve in the Senate on January 3, 2005.
Roland W. Burris
Barack Obama Appointed to the Senate on December 31, 2008, Burris filled the vacancy caused by the resignation of Barack Obama.
Carol Moseley Braun
Carol Moseley Braun Elected on January 3, 1993, also became the first African American woman ever to serve as U.S. Senator
Edward Brooke The first African American elected to the Senate by popular vote, Edward Brooke of Massachusetts served two full terms, from 1967 to 1979.
Blanche K. Bruce
At the dawn of the Civil War, Bruce escaped slavery and traveled north to begin a distinguished career in education and politics. Elected to the Senate in 1874 by the Mississippi state legislature, he served from 1875 to 1881. In 2002, the Senate commissioned a new portrait of Bruce, now on display in the U.S. Capitol. (Photo: Library of Congress)
(Photo: The Library of Congress
The framers intended the Senate to be an independent body of responsible citizens who would share power with the president and the House of Representatives.
To balance power between the large and small states, the Constitution’s framers agreed that states would be represented equally in the Senate (2) and in proportion (3/5th Clause) to their populations in the House of Representatives. Further preserving the authority of individual states, they provided that state legislatures would elect senators.